Conducting Online Research

Ahern, N. R. (2005). Using the Internet to conduct research. Nurse Researcher, 13(2), 55-68.

Baym, N. (2005). Introduction: internet research as it isn’t, is, could be, and should be. The Information Society, 21(3), 229-232.

Baym, N. K. (2009). What constitutes quality in qualitative Internet research? In A. N. Markham & N. K. Baym (Eds.), Internet inquiry: Conversations about method, (pp.173-190). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Beneito-Montagut, R. (2011). Ethnography goes online: towards a user-centered methodology to research interpersonal communication on the internet. Qualitative Research, 11(6), 716-735.

Berry, D. M. (2004). Internet research: Privacy, ethics and alienation: An open source approach. The Journal of Internet Research, 14(4), 323-332.

Bishop, J. (2006). Increasing participation in online communities: a framework for human-computer interaction. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(4), 1881-1893.

Bowker, N., & Tuffin, K. (2004). Using the on-line medium for discursive research about people with disabilities. Social Science Computer Review, 22(2), 228-241.

Bowker, N. I., & Tuffin, K. (2007). Understanding positive subjectivities made possible online for disabled people. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 36(2), 63-71.

Browne, K. (2005). Snowball sampling: Using social networks to research non-heterosexual women. International journal of social research methodology, 8(1), 47-60.

Cabiria, J. (2008). A Second Life: Online virtual worlds as therapeutic tools for gay and lesbian people. Santa Barbara, CA: Fielding Graduate University. Cavanagh, A. (2007). Sociology in the age of the internet. Maidengead: Open University/McGraw-Hill.

Chen, S., Hall, G. J., & Johns, M. D. (2004). Research paparazzi in cyberspace: The voices of the researched. In M. D. Johns, S. Chen and G. J. Hall (eds). Online Social Research Methods Issues, and Ethics. New York: Peter Lang. pp. 157-178.

Fielding, N., Lee, R. M., & Blank, G. (Eds.). (2008). The handbook of online research methods. London: Sage.

Fox, J., Murray, C., & Warm, A. (2003). Conducting research using web-based questionnaires: practical, methodological, and ethical considerations. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 6(2), 167-180.

Hine, C. (2004). Social research methods and the internet: a thematic review. Sociological Research Online, 9(2), Retrieved September 22, 2004, from

Hughes, J. (Ed.). (2012). SAGE internet research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Hunsinger, J., Klastrup, L., & Allen, M. (2010). The international handbook of internet research. Dordrecht and London: Springer.

Illingworth, N. (2001). The internet matters: exploring the use of the internet as a research Tool. Sociological Research Online, 6(2). Retrieved September 14, 2004, from:

James, N. (2007). The use of email interviewing as a qualitative method of inquiry in educational research. British Educational Research Journal, 33(6), 963-976.

James, N., & Busher, H. (2006). Credibility, authenticity and voice: dilemmas in online interviewing. Qualitative Research Journal, 6(3), 403-420.

Jankowski, N. W., & van Selm, M. (2005). Epilogue: methodological concerns and innovations in Internet research. In C. Hine (Ed.), Virtual Methods: Issues in Social Research on the Internet, Oxford: Berg. pp. 21-34.

Joinson. A. N. (2005). Internet behaviour and the design of virtual methods. In Hine, C. (Ed.). Virtual methods: issues in social research on the internet. Oxford: Berg. pp. 21-34.

Jowett, A., Peel, E., & Shaw, R. (2011). Online interviewing in psychology: reflections on the process. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 8(4), 354-369.

Kennedy, H. ( 2006). Beyond anonymity or future directions for internet identity research. New Media and Society, 8(6): 859-876.

O’Connor, H., & Madge, C. (2003) Focus groups in cyberspace: using the Internet for qualitative research. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 6(2), 133-143.

Orgad, S. (2006). The cultural dimensions of online communication: a study of breast cancer patients’ Internet spaces. New Media & Society, 8(6), 877-899.

Stewart, K., & Williams, M. (2005). Researching online populations: the use of online focus groups for social research. Qualitative Research, 5(4), 395-416.

Sue, V., & Ritter, L. (2007). Conducting online surveys. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Williams, M. (2007). Avatar watching: Participant observation in graphical online environments. Qualitative Research, 7(1) 5 – 24.

Williams, M., & Robson, K. (2004). Reengineering focus group methodology for the online environment, in M. D. Johns, S. L. S. Chen & G. J. Hall (eds). Online Social Research: methods, issues, and ethics. Oxford: Peter Lang Publishing, 25-46.

Emerging Technologies:

Alexander, B. (2009). Apprehending the future: Emerging technologies, from science fiction to campus reality. EDUCAUSE Review, 44(3), 12-29.

Hookway, N. (2008). Entering the “blogosphere”: some strategies for using blogs in social research. Qualitative Research, 8(1), 91-113.

Kalman, Y. M., Ravid, G., Raban, D. R., & Rafaeli, S. (2006). Pauses and response latencies: A chronemic analysis of asynchronous CMC. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 12(1), 1-23.

Lenhart, A. (2009). Adults and social network websites. Retrieved January 25, 2009, from

Matthews, J., & Cramer, E. P. (2008).  Using technology to enhance qualitative research with hidden populations.  The Qualitative Report, 13(2), 301-315.

Walther, J. B., Loh, T., & Granka, L. (2005). Let Me Count the ways: The interchange of verbal and nonverbal cues in computer-mediated and face-to-face affinity. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 24(1), 36-65.


Bakardjieva, M., & Feenberg, A. (2000). Involving the virtual subject. Ethics and Information Technology, 2(4), 233-240.

Bruckman, A. (2002). Studying the amateur artist. A perspective on disguising data collected in human subjects research on the Internet. Ethics and Information Technology, 4(3), 217-231.

Carusi, A. (2008). Data as representation: Beyond anonymity in e-research ethics. International Journal of Internet Research Ethics, 1(1), 37-65.

Capurro, R., & Pingle, C. (2002). Ethical issues of online communication research. Ethics and Information Technology, 4(3), 189-194.

Coleman, S. (2006). E-mail, terrorism, and the right to privacy. Ethics and Information Technology, 8(4), 17-27.

Eysenbach, G., & Till, J. E. (2001). Ethical issues in qualitative research on Internet communities. British Medical Journal, 10, 323(7321), 1103-1105.

James, N., & Busher, H. (2007). Ethical issues in online educational research: protecting privacy, establishing authenticity in email interviewing. International Journal of Research and Method in Education, 30(1), 101-113.

Pittenger, D. (2003). Internet research: an opportunity to revisit classic ethical problems in behavioral research, Ethics and Behavior, 13(1), 45-60.

Whiteman, N. (2012). Undoing ethics: rethinking practice in online research. New York: Springer.

E-mail and Online Interviews:

Bampton, R., & Cowton, C.J. (2002). The E-interview, Forum:Qualitative Social Research, 3(2).

Beck, C. T. (2005). Benefits of participating in Internet interviews: Women helping women. Qualitative Health Research, 15(3), 411-422.

Bjerke, T. (2010). When My Eyes Bring Pain to My Soul, and Vice Versa: Facing Preconceptions in Email and Face-to-Face Interviews. Qualitative Health Research, 20(12), 1717-1724.

Chin-Sheng, W., & Wen-Bin, C. (2006). Why are adolescents addicted to online gaming? An interview study in Taiwan. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 9(6), 762-766.

Chou, C. (2001). Internet heavy use and addiction among Taiwanese college students: An online interview study. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 4(5), 573-585.

Davis, M., Bolding, G., Hart, G., Sheer, L., & Elford, J. (2004). Reflecting on the experience of interviewing online: perspectives from the Internet and HIV study in London. AIDS Care, 16(8), 944-952.

Egan, J., Chenoweth, L., & McAuliffe, D. (2006). Email-facilitated qualitative interviews with traumatic brain injury survivors: a new and accessible method. Brain Injuries, 20(12), 1283-94.

Hinchcliffe, V., & Gavin, H. (2009). Social and virtual networks: Evaluating synchronous online interviewing using instant messenger. The Qualitative Report, 14(2), 318-340.

Hunt, N., & McHale, S. (2007). A practical guide to the email interview. Qualitative Health Research, 17(10), 1415-1421.

James, N. (2007). The use of email interviewing as a qualitative method of inquiry in educational research. British Educational Research Journal, 33(6) 963-976.

James, N., & Busher, H. (2006). Credibility, authenticity and voice: Dilemmas in online interviewing. Qualitative Research, 6(3), 403-420.

James, N., & Busher, H. (2009). Online interviewing. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Kitto, R. J., & Barnett, J. (2007). Analysis of thin online interview data: Toward a sequential hierarchical language-based approach. American Journal of Evaluation, 28(3), 356-368.

Salmons, J. (2010). Online interviews in real time. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Salmons, J. (2011). Cases in online interview research. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Online Ethnography

Beaulieu, A. (2004). Mediating ethnography: objectivity and the making of ethnographies of the internet. Social Epistemology, 18(2-3): 139-163.

Bowler, J., Gary M. . (2010). Netnography: A method specifically designed to study cultures and communities online. The Qualitative Report, 15(5), 1270-1275.

Carter, D. (2005). Living in virtual communities: An ethnography of human relationships in cyberspace. Information, Communication & Society, 8(2), 148-167.

Kozinets, R. V. (2010). Netnography: Doing ethnographic research online. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Markham, A. N. (1998). Life online: Research real experience in virtual space. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press.

Ruhleder, K. (2000). The virtual ethnographer: fieldwork in distributed electronic environments. Field Methods, 12(1), 3-17.

Rybas, N., & Gajjala, R. (2007). Developing cyberethnographic research methods for understanding digitally mediated identities. Forum: Quantitative Social Research, 8(3), Art. 35. Retrieved December 10, 2007, from:

Sade-Beck, L. (2004). Internet ethnography: Online and offline. International Journal of. Qualitative Methods, 3(2), 1-14.

Teli, M., Francesco, P., & Hakken, D. (2007). The internet as a library-of-people: for cyberethnography of online groups. Forum: Quantitative Social Research, 8(3), Art. 33. Retrieved December 10, 2007, from: